Grade 7 | Science | Forests, Natural resources and their conservation, Olympiad, CBSE, ICSE, SOF, ITO
Forest is a complex ecosystem consisting mainly of trees which protect all the life forms. There are different types of forests which are present in different locations and support different types of life forms.
Different types of forest in India
1. Mangrove - such forests contain short and dense trees that tolerate and adapt themselves according to the saline and fresh water. They are grown in coastal areas. In India, the Gangetic Sunderbans is the largest mangrove area in India.
2. Scrubs - These are the areas which are mainly covered by grass or scrubs. They mainly lie in the Deccan plateau and on the outskirts of the forests.
3. Open forest- Such forest cover is not very dense and as the name indicates the area here is more open. These are mainly found in the Himalayan region and both eastern part of India.
4. Dense forests- Here, the vegetation is very thick and the canopy cover is dense. The two main areas are the Western Ghats and the eastern Himalayan which are tropical forests.
In Kerala, forests are spread over a large area and consist of tropical wet evergreen, deciduous, and dry forests. This area is rich in vegetation and many plants found here are known to have a medical value which provides the treatment of various ailment by the practice of Ayurveda.
Significance of forests
Trees have their own way to beat the heat: absorb CO2 that fuels global warming. Plants always need some CO2 for photosynthesis, but Earth's air is now so thick with extra emissions that forests fight global warming just by breathing. CO2 is stored in wood, leaves, and soil, often for centuries.
Large forests can influence regional weather patterns and even create their own microclimates. The water vapors from the trees rise in the atmosphere and condense to form clouds. These clouds, in turn, bring rainfall and water seeps into the ground and reach the groundwater table.
Tree roots are key allies in heavy rain, especially for low-lying areas like river plains. They help the ground absorb more of a flash flood, reducing soil loss and property damage by slowing the flow.
Forests help the animals by providing food and shelter to them and also acts as a protective camouflage for them. For many tribes living in the forests, the shelter and food are extracted from here only.
Timber is an important raw material, for construction activities and for making furniture. Wood pulp is used in the manufacturing of paper. The plants with medicinal value are helpful in treating many ailments.