Grade 7 | Science | Climate and adaptation, Weather, Climate and adaptation of animals to climate, Olympiad, CBSE, ICSE, SOF, ITO
Climate and adaptation
As we know different parts of the earth have different types of climate and the sun is mainly responsible for this difference in climatic conditions.
Moist tropical climates- Such climates exhibit high temperatures and a large amount of rain around the year.
Humid middle latitude climates- such climates are greatly influenced by land and water differences. The climate has warm and dry summers whereas cool and wet winters.
Continental climate- Such a climate can be characterized by low winter temperature which supports a fixed period of snow cover every year. In summers relatively moderate precipitation occurs with even distribution.
Dry climates- They are characterized by little rain and high daily temperature range.
Polar regions have very cold climates due to the all-time snow cover. Most of the areas are covered by glaciers or a semi-permanent layer of ice.
Animals adapt themselves to survive according to the climate in which they live. Some animals which live in extreme climates can be seen with special features for their protection. Ex- The hump of camel helps in storing food in the form of fat, and hooves to tread on the desert sand with ease.
In the polar region, the temperature may go down to minus 37 degrees centigrade during winters. Many animals like polar bears, penguins, many types of fish, foxes, reminders whales, seal and birds are found in the parpaper regions with special adaptations to survive the extremities of this region.
Polar bears protect themselves against the cold with the double layer of thick fur on their bodies. There is a layer of fat under their skin, and are very well insulated. It's large wide and large paws are useful for swimming as well as for walking on the snow.
The bodies of penguins have a thick layer of skin and move around in groups to keep warm. Their bodies are streamlined and feet are webbed which helps them in swimming.
Birds migrate to warmer areas at the onset of winter. They come back again in the summer. For example- Siberian cranes migrate to far off places like Bharatpur in Rajasthan, Sultanpur in Haryana and also to some wetlands of northeastern India. As the birds travel thousands of kilometers to migrate, the sun guides them in the day while the stars do so in the night.
Tropical region has hot climate where the average temperature is higher than 15 degrees centigrade. It may even cross 40 degrees centigrade at the peak of the summer. Day and night are at the equal duration throughout the year here. These areas also receives abundant rainfall. The tropical forest is a significant feature about this region. The major types of animals found here are - monkeys, apes, gorilla, lions, tigers elephants leopards, lizards, snakes, birds and insect.
Most of the tropical animals have sensitive hearing and sharp eyesight. They also have such a skin color which hells them to disguise and protect themselves from predators.
The Toucan has a long and large beak which helps it to reach the fruits on the branches.
The elephant has large ears and tusks. The large ears help them to hear every soft sound. The tusks are the modified teeth which help them to tear the bark of the trees.