Grade 6, English Olympiad (CBSE) - Present Pertfect Tense 

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Grade 6  |   English  |   Present Pertfect Tense, Tenses, Olympiad, CBSE, ICSE, SOF, ITO

TENSES 

Dictionary Meaning:

Tenses are a set of forms of a verb that indicate the time or completeness of the action expressed by the verb.

 

In Simple Words:

The word Tense has been derived from a Latin word ‘Tempus’ which means time. A verb indicates the time of an action, event or condition by changing its form, these set of forms are known as tenses.

We can say that: Tenses are forms of a verb that show the time, continuance or completion of an action or a state that is expressed in connection with the moment at which a statement is made about it.

As we have studied earlier in the topic Verb, that the verbs occur in different forms, those forms are regarded as Tenses.

There are three main forms of Verb Tenses, they are:-

  • The Present Tense
  • The Past Tense
  • The Future Tense

The Tenses can be categorized as under:-

  • Based on Time Frame:- The verb tenses may be categorized according to the time of the action or the time frame, as under:
  1. The Present Tense: Present tense expresses an unchanging, repeated or reoccurring action or situation that exists only now. It can also represent a widespread truth, a habitual activity or a custom.
  2. The Past Tense: Past tense expresses an action or a situation that has occurred or which started and has finished already in the past itself.
  3. The Future Tense: Future tense expresses an action or a situation that will occur in the (near) future.

 

  • Based on Aspect:- Verb tenses may also be categorized according to the aspect. Aspect refers to the nature of the action described by the verb. There are four aspects as under:-
  1. The Simple Tense: Also known as indefinite tense, describes an action, but do not state that whether the action is over or finished. There are three simple tenses.
  2. The Continuous Tense: Also known as Incomplete tenses or Progressive tenses, describes an ongoing or unfinished action. There are three continuous tenses.
  3. The Perfect Tense: Also known as complete tenses, describes a finished action. An action or situation that is over or completed.
  4. The Perfect Continuous Tense: It is the combination of the complete tenses and the incomplete tenses, to describe an action which was in progress and then/ now finished or over.

There are Twelve possible Verb Tenses:

 

Explaining the tenses as follows:

  1. The Present Tense
  • The Simple Present Tense: Also known as Indefinite Present Tense, it is used to describe an action, an event or a condition/situation that is occurring currently (at present), at the moment of writing or speaking.

Formation of a sentence: Subject + Base Verb (First form) + Object.

Example: 1) I read the book.

2) He/ She reads the book.

 

  • The Present Continuous Tense: The Present Continuous Tense emphasizes on the continuing nature of an act, event or a situation.

Formation of a sentence: Subject + To be Verb (am/ is/ are) + Present Participle (Base Verb + ing) + Object.

Example: 1) I am studying.

2) We are studying.

3) They are studying.

 

  • The Present Perfect Tense: The Present Perfect Tense is used to describe an action that began in the past and continues into the present or has just been completed and is used to talk about past events which have caused a change in the present.

Formation of a sentence: Subject + To have verb (have/ has) + Past participle (Base verb + ed or en) + Object.

Example: 1) He/ She has studied in Heritage School.

2) They have studied in Heritage School.

 

  • The Present Perfect Continuous Tense: Also known as Progressive Tense or the Incomplete Tense. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense is used to describe an action, event or a situation that has begun in the past and continues into the present, i.e. the action may not have finished yet.

Formation of a sentence: Subject + To have Verb (have/ has) + been + Present Participle (Base verb + ing) + Object.

Example: 1) I have been playing football.

2) They have been waiting for so long.

 

  1. The Past Tense
  • The Simple Past Tense: Also known as Past Indefinite Tense, is used to describe an action, an event, or a situation that occurred in the past.

Formation of a sentence: Subject + Base Verb (Second form) + Object.

Example: 1) I bought a book.

2) Vasu won the championship.

 

  • The Past Continuous Tense: is used to describe actions going on in the past. We use past Continuous Tense to describe something which was happening at a particular moment in the past. It is often used to show the contrast with an event expressed using the Simple Past Tense. The duration of the Past Continuous event is not specified.

Formation of a sentence: Subject + To be Verb (Second form- was/ were) + Present Participle (Base Verb + ing) + Object.

Example: 1) The farmers were ploughing their fields.

2) We were swimming in the river.

 

  • Past Perfect Tense: is used to refer to the actions that took place and were completed in the past.

Formation of a sentence: Subject + To have Verbs (Second form- had) + Past Participle (Base verb + ed or en) + Object.

Example: 1) I had played football.

2) He had drawn a picture of Mahatma Gandhi in the Drawing Competition.

 

  • Past Perfect Continuous Tense: is used to indicate that a continuing action in the past began before another action began or interrupted the first action.

Formation of a sentence: Subject + To have Verbs (Second form - had) + been + Present Participle (Base Verb + ing) + Object.

Example: 1) I had been playing when mom called me.

2) The children had been watching the cartoon on T.V.

 

  1. The Future Tense:
  • The Simple Future Tense: is used to describe the actions that will take place in future after the act of speaking or writing.

Formation of a sentence: Subject + shall/ will + Base Verb (First form) + Object.

Example: 1) I shall listen to a story.

2) Gudiya will help me in my project.

 

  • The Future Continuous Tense: is used to describe actions ongoing in the future. The Future Progressive is also used to refer to continuing action that will occur in the future, i.e. to express future actions that have already been planned to be done in the future.

Formation of a sentence: Subject + To be Verb (Future Tense – shall be/ will be) + Present Participle (Base Verb + ing) + Object.

Example: 1) I shall be playing in the garden.

2) The boys will be playing tomorrow.

 

  • The Future Perfect Tense: is used to refer to an action that will be completed sometime in the future before another action takes place, i.e. to be completed in the certain time frame in the future.

Formation of a sentence: Subject + To have Verb (Future tense- shall have/ will have) + Past Participle (Base Verb + ing) + Object.

Example: 1) I shall have played for my team.

2) Our teacher will have taught us a lesson.

Note: The words just, before, already, are used to describe the actions that will be completed by a certain time in the future.

 

  • Future Perfect Continuous Tense: is used to indicate the continuing action that will be completed at some specified time in the future.

Formation of a sentence: Subject + To have Verb (Future Tense- shall have/ will have) + been + Present Participle (Base Verb + ing) + Object.

Example: 1) I shall have been playing.

2) Ravi will have been travelling for an hour.

 

 

 


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