Grade 5, English Olympiad (CBSE) - Naration 

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Grade 5  |   English  |   Naration, Voices and Narration, Olympiad, CBSE, ICSE, SOF, ITO

Narration: Direct and Indirect speech


Narration generally means any kind of explaining or telling of something.

Narration is the use of a written or spoken commentary to convey a story to an audience.

Narration can be reported in two particular ways:

(1)    Direct Speech: It is a representation of the actual words said by someone. Direct speech repeats, or quotes, the exact words that are spoken. When we use direct speech in writing, we place the words spoken between quotation marks (" ") and there is no change in the words. A direct speech report usually has a reporting verb in the simple past tense. Example: I said, "It is true."

 

(2)    Indirect Speech: In this the message of the speaker is conveyed or reported in our own words. In simple words, quoting a person using your own words is called an indirect speech. Under this the sequences of tenses may also change. No use of Punctuations is required and the conjunction that is used. Example: I said that it was true.

Let’s observe the changes carefully as under:

1)      Changes in Adjectives or Adverbs:

Direct Speech

(word used in the quote)

Indirect Speech

(word expressed in report)

This

That

These

Those

Here

There

Now

Then

Just

Then

Ago

Before

Thus

So

Last

The Previous

Next

The following

Today

That day

Tomorrow

Next day / Following day

Yesterday

Day before / Previous day

Tonight

That night

Last night

Previous night / the night before

Next week/ month/ year

Following week/ month/ year

This week

that week

last week/ year

the week/ year before

 

2)      Changes in Conjunctions:

Conjunction (that) is placed before the reported speech to replace the comma ( , ).

a)      The comma (,) used in the reported statement is replaced using the word that in its place.

b)      The comma (,) used in a reported question is replaced by using If or whether in place of the comma.

c)       The comma (,) used in a reported imperative statement by using to in its place.

d)      If the reported speech starts with a question word (Wh words: which, who, why, whose, what etc.) the comma (,) is removed without any replacement.

 

3)      Changes in Pronouns:

a)      Pronouns of the first and second person in the Reported speech are changed according to the Reporting speech.

b)      First person pronouns (I and We) in Reported speech are changed according to the Subject of the reporting speech.

c)       Second person pronouns (You) in Reported speech are changed according to the Object of the reporting speech.

d)      Third person pronouns (He, She, It and They) in reported speech remain the same (not changed).

 

4)       If Reporting speech is in past tense, Tense in reported speech is changed as follows: (i) A present indefinite becomes past indefinite.

(ii) A present continuous becomes a past continuous.

(iii) A Present perfect becomes a past perfect.

(iv) A Past indefinite becomes a Past perfect.

(v) Will / Shall changes into would / should.

***If Reporting speech is in past tense, Words showing nearness change into Words showing distance.

 

5)       Verb of the reporting speech (say to / said to) is replaced according to the reported speech.

If Reported speech is (say to / said to)

It is replaced by

 Question 

Ask / Asked / Inquired of

Statement

tell / told

Prayer / Wish

Pray or Prayed / Wished

Request

Request / Requested

Order

Order / Ordered / Urged etc.

Command

Command / Commanded

Advice 

Advise / Advised

6)      If the reporting speech is not in Past tense, no change of tense will occur in reported speech.

 

7)      Changes in Tenses with examples:

 

S.NO.

Direct Speech

Verbs used

Indirect Speech

Changes in verbs

1.

Simple Present Tense

write / writes

Simple Past Tense

wrote

2.

Present Continuous Tense

am/ is/ are writing

Past Continuous Tense

was/ were writing

3.

Present Perfect Tense

have / has written

Past Perfect Tense

had written

4.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

have / has been writing

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

had been writing

5.

Simple Past Tense

wrote

Past Perfect Tense

had written

6.

Past Continuous Tense

was / were writing

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

had been writing

7.

Past Perfect Tense

had written

Past Perfect Tense

had written

8.

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

had been writing

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

had been writing

9.

Future Tense

Shall / Will

Past Tense

Should / Would

10.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Verbs that are used

don’t/ doesn’t

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Verbs that are reported (changed)

didn’t

11.

didn’t

hadn’t

12.

may / might

might

13.

can / could

could

14.

must

have to

15.

used to

used to / would

16.

dare

dared

17.

ought to write

ought to have written.

 

 Examples of Direct and Indirect Speeches:

S. No.

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

1.

She says, "I am a bit nervous."

She says that she was a bit nervous.

2.

He said, "I am coming."

He said that he was coming.

3.

Gopi said, "I like reading."

Gopi said that he liked reading.

4.

He said to her, "I live in this apartment."

He told her that he lived in that apartment.

5.

They said, "Our teacher is on leave."

They said that their teacher was on leave.

6.

Ramesh said, "I did not go to school yesterday."

Ramesh said that he had not gone to school the previous day.

7.

Harry said to them, "You are fond of swimming."

Harry told them that they were fond of swimming.

8.

Sheena said, "She wants to be a doctor."

Sheena said that she wanted to be a doctor."

9.

Sia and Sonal said, "They are busy now."

Sia and Sonal said that they were busy then.

10.

Dhiraj said, "I hope you will not repeat this mistake."

Dhiraj said that he hoped I would not repeat that mistake.

11.

Reema said, "Is this your book?"

Reema asked if that was my book.

12.

Teacher said, "Did you do your homework yesterday?"

Teacher inquired if I did my homework the previous day.

13.

He said to his sister, "Please say something."

He requested his sister to say something.

14.

The doctor said to the patient, "Take complete rest and follow my prescription."

The doctor advised the patient to take complete rest and follow his prescription.

15.

Aunt Julie said, "May you prosper."

Aunt Julie prayed that I might prosper.

16.

Anuj said, "Hurrah! I have won the gold medal."

Anuj exclaimed with joy that he had won the gold medal.

17.

Mother said to me with a smile, "Dinner’s ready!"

Mother told me with a smile that dinner was ready.

18.

"Why are we here?", asked a boy to his mother.

A boy asked his mother why were they there.

19.

Teacher says, "Yogita has always been a good student."

Teacher says that Yogita has always been a good student.

20.

She will say, "Varun did not come up to my expectations."

She will say that Varun did not come up to my expectations.

 


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