Grade 2, English Olympiad (CBSE) - Punctuation
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Grade 2 | English | Punctuation, Articles, Capitalisation and punctuation, Olympiad, CBSE, ICSE, SOF, ITO
Punctuation is are necessary to have clarity and sense in a sentence. They are used for structuring the organizing the sentence in a meaningful form.
Rules of Punctuation:
- Commas are used to separate items of a list. E.g. I like apple, mango and banana.
- Commas are used to separate distinctive clauses in a sentence. E.g. He was tired, but he continued the journey.
- Tricky usage: If have an introductory clause in the beginning of the sentence apart from the main clause then a comma is used but not other way round.
Correct: While we going through the jungle, we saw a lion
Incorrect: We saw a lion, while we were going through the jungle.
Correct: We saw a lion while we were going through the jungle.
Correct: If you want to win, you should work hard.
Correct: You should work hard if you want to win.
2. Period or Full Stop (.)
- A period is used to mark the end of a sentence. We have to take a small pause while speaking when a sentence is finished.
- It is also used in abbreviations. E.g. std.
3. Question mark (?)
- The question mark is added to the end of the sentence if is asking a question. E.g. Where is your home?
4. Exclamation mark (!)
- Use it to end the sentence in place of the period when the sentence is expressing an exclamation, desire, anxiety, command etc.
What a beautiful scene!
Imp: Sometimes question and exclamatory sentences get confusing. Keep in mind in questions helping verb comes before the subject in the sentence while in exclamatory sentence helping verb comes after the subject.
What are you eating?
This is a question so question mark should be used.
What you are eating!
As helping verb is not before the subject, it is not a question but an exclamation.
5. Quotes ("")
- Quotation marks are used to quote someone else's words in the exact manner as they were spoken. E.g. Rohit said, "Please get me a cup of tea."
6. Colons (:) and Semicolons(;)
- Semicolons are used to join independent clauses with or without a conjunction. E.g. It was snowing heavily: however, we went out for shopping.
7. Apostrophe (')
- It is used to show possession. E.g. Ram's book
- It is used as contraction for some words like are, not, is. E.g. don't, it's etc.
8. Parentheses ()
- Parentheses are used for specifying extra information.
9. Dashes (-)
- Dashes are used to separate extra information.
Some words are written with the first letter as a capital. This is called capitalization.
- The first word of every sentence is capitalized.
- Proper nouns are capitalized.
Correct: I and Ram went to market.
Incorrect: I and ram went to market.
- First person "I" is always capitalized.
- Common nouns are not capitalized
- Relations when used as a proper noun. E.g. My Mother asked me to go to market.
- Countries and languages are capitalized. E.g. India, English, French etc.
- Days of the week and months of the year. E.g. Monday, November etc.
- Planets, monuments, man-made landmarks, holy books, news papers, organizations etc.
- States, countries, cities, mountains, seas, oceans etc are capitalized.
- Initials and titles are capitalized. E.g. Mr., Dr. etc.
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